DNA Damage, Mutation and Cancer

DNA repair is an assortment of processes by that a cell identifies and corrects damage to the polymer molecules that write in code its ordination. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors like radiation will cause DNA harm, leading to as many as one million individual molecular lesions per cell per day.

Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and may eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. As a consequence, the DNA repair method is continually active as it responds to break within the DNA structure. When traditional repair processes fail, and once cellular apoptosis doesn't occur, irreparable DNA harm might occur, as well as double-strand breaks and DNA cross-linkages. This can eventually result in malignant tumors, or cancer as per the two-hit hypothesis.

 

 

  • Nucleotide excision repair
  • Homologous recombinational repair
  • Microhomology-mediated end joining or alt-End joining
  • DNA mismatch repair

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